Protocol Review
0xC405
September 7th, 2022

Sudoswap is an efficient automated market maker (AMM) that supports exchanges between NFTs (ERC-721) and fungible tokens (ETH or ERC20). It facilitates the exchange of NFTs for ETH and tokens without locating a buyer or seller. This provides you with rapid liquidity as an NFT trader and makes trading NFTs similar to trading other tokens.

Already, it has traded 23k ETH and 157k NFTs in volume, earning 620 ETH in fees for liquidity providers and 115 ETH in platform fees, with 25.5k unique wallets trading. The governance token for the SudoAMM protocol $SUDO was also announced recently.

The SudoAMM model makes low-slippage swaps between NFTs and tokens available for traders. Liquidity providers can deploy a pool that will programmatically buy or sell an NFT at a given price (similar to limit orders), ultimately giving more power over the price ranges they fund.

In contrast to OpenSea, users can choose to sell NFTs into a pool at a specified price rather than waiting for a bid. With this, users may instantaneously sell their NFTs into a pool.

During times of high congestion, Ethereum can price out even its most enthusiastic users. We’ve seen this happen many times – quite recently with the Yuga Labs NFT drop, where some users paid thousands of dollars for a single transaction.

There is an immediate need for scaling solutions for Ethereum that don’t compromise on its security guarantees. Optimism is one such solution. It makes transacting with Ethereum assets more affordable by constructing a separate “layer 2” blockchain where transactions are cheaper, with exit guarantees back to Ethereum’s Layer 1. To get onto this L2 though, existing Ethereum users need to bridge their assets to Optimism.

The Basics of Bridging

Optimism's execution environment is general purpose and practically the same as Ethereum; Optimism runs only a slight modification of the Ethereum Virtual Machine. This means that the same contract can be deployed to both networks, and we can expect them to work the same way.

Introduction

0xSplits is a trustless protocol for splitting on-chain income. The protocol takes the form of a “hyperstructure”—a permissionless piece of infrastructure that distributes value to all users, operates at gas cost, and persists as long as the underlying blockchain reaches consensus. The smart contracts have been deployed to Ethereum mainnet and independently audited by Shipyard.

The core components of the income-splitting mechanism are Splits and Recipients. A Split is a payable smart contract that receives ETH and ERC-20 tokens and proportionally allocates received funds to Recipients. A Recipient can be any address associated with an EOA (externally owned account) or smart contract. As of 3/27/2022, 580 ETH and 16 different ERC20 tokens have flowed through 267 Splits.

Splits can be designated as either Mutable or Immutable at creation, with Mutable Splits requiring a Controller address (the Controller of Immutable Splits is set to 0x0, the Null Address). The Controller can modify a Mutable Split’s Recipients, percent allocations, and Distributor Fee after a Split has been created. The Controller can also transfer control to another address. While a Mutable Split can be set to immutable, an Immutable Split cannot be set to mutable. As of writing, 170 Immutable Splits and 97 Mutable Splits have been deployed, splitting income to 644 unique Recipients.

February 23rd, 2022

Lens is a decentralized social graph protocol created by the AAVE team. The purpose of the protocol is to empower creators to own the links in the social graph that connects them with their community. Lens allows accounts to create and follow profiles, publish and collect posts, and much more, focusing on the economics of social interactions.

The protocol is EVM compatible and is still in development (see Github). A version of it has been deployed to the Polygon Mumbai testnet.

Nomenclature:

  • Account refers to an Ethereum account. It could be an EOA or a Smart Contract.
  • NFTs refer to ERC-721 Non-Fungible Token Standard

NFT marketplace Foundation recently launched Collections — a way for artists to mint groups of NFTs on their own smart contracts.

Collections allow artists to express a thematic relation among a group of their NFTs (just as a musician would for an album) and to describe the collection using the NFT's metadata. Collections also allow Foundation to aggregate and present data about a collection for potential buyers — such as its total sales, limits on the collection size, and floor price.

Each collection is described by a name, symbol, description, and an optional limit on the collection size.

An example collection by Jen Stark that has a unique namespace (Cosmos), a description of the collection, and information important for collectors, such as the collection size (60 NFTs), the other collectors, and the floor price. Although featured in Foundation's announcement tweet, this particular collection does not use Foundation's Collections contract — instead, it uses Manifold's Creator Core contracts, which provides similar functionality.
An example collection by Jen Stark that has a unique namespace (Cosmos), a description of the collection, and information important for collectors, such as the collection size (60 NFTs), the other collectors, and the floor price. Although featured in Foundation's announcement tweet, this particular collection does not use Foundation's Collections contract — instead, it uses Manifold's Creator Core contracts, which provides similar functionality.